Native American or Indigenous Learning Research:
A Pathfinder

Annotated Bibliography

Course and Compiler Information

Native American or Indigenous Learning Research: A Pathfinder
Compiled by Kristy Wolf

This pathfinder is intended for teachers of Native American students in tribal colleges. The sources included in this pathfinder will aid teachers and educators in developing an understanding of the issues and theories related to Native American learning styles and environments. The categories presented are 1) Information regarding learning research, 2) Organizations and associations related to indigenous culture and education, and 3) Recent research articles from online publications.

I. Sources of information for Learning Research

1. The Educational Research Information Centre (ERIC), part of the United States Department of Education is a good source of research conducted in the area of learning and instruction. Information is collected and dissimenated through clearinghouses. The ERIC Web site, at contains links to a searchable Web database. It is best to use the AskERIC database and limit your search to “Full-Text ERIC Digests.” The AskERIC database is located at

2. Several sources on the Web provide information regarding learning styles and multiple intelligences as well as surveys that are interactive printable. The most comprehensive source on the Web is provided at There are information sources provided as well as interactive learning style assessment tools.

3. Another learning theory assessment tool is provided for college-age students at Provided in this site is information regarding the learning styles theory and a Web-based testing tool.

II. Organizations pertaining to Native American Education

1. The United States Department of Education includes under its organization the Office of Indian Education. This Web site is a good source of information pertaining to research in many areas of indigenous education, including learning styles and environment. The Office of Indian Education Web site is located at The “Publications and Resources” page includes recent research in the area of Native American education.

2. One of ERIC’s clearinghouses pertains to American Indian Education. The Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools: American Indians and Alaska Natives provides information for educators as well as recent research in the area of research. The primary benefit of this page is the inclusion of recent ERIC Digests on American Indian education. “ERIC Digests are brief (1,500-word) summaries of the education literature on specific topics, including reference lists for readers who want to know more.” The Web site location is

3. The University of Alaska provides information regarding education in the provison of the Alaska Native Knowledge Network at In particular, there is a section called “Native Pathways to Education.” There are many resources available in this site for current research regarding learning styles. The main page includes a search box, enabling you to enter keywords, such as “learning styles.”

4. The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) provides research on tribal colleges and universities. The “Research” portion of the Web site is most useful for located learning research,, with articles provided as pdf files.

5. The Center for Educational Technology in Indian America states as their goal, “Our mission is to assist and support Indian educators, schools and communities in accessing and integrating technology to improve student achievement.” The “Online Resources” page provdes links to various types of educational research and educational Web sites at

6. The National Center for Education Statistics at provides statistical reports in American Indian and Alaska Native education. From the home page, select the “Electronic Catalog” and then search for “American Indian.”

7. The Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, in association with the National Indian Education Association (NIEA), have put together the Native Education Directory. Located at, this source provides informational resources in the area of education, research, government, and many other areas.

8. The United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), in cooperation with the AIHEC, provide a “Native American Collection” within their virtual library. For every subject subcategory, there is a correlating “Native American Resources” section. In particular, the “Education” section is quite useful,

II. Selected Articles from Online Publications

1. Barnhardt, Ray. (2002). Teaching/learning across cultures: strategies for success. Alaska Native Knowledge
Network. Retrieved April 15, 2002 from

This article reports that learning is improved when educators are aware of the indigenous worldview and
incorporate such knowledge into the curriculum. Furthermore, Barnhardt suggests that ways of determining
what has been learned should be altered as well.

2. More, Arthur J. (1989). Native Indian learning styles: a reviw for researchers and teachers. Journal of
American Indian Education, special ed., August 1989. Retrieved April 12, 2002 from
The current theories of learning styles are described in relation to Native American students. While there
are not uniquely different learning styles of such students, a realization of how culture effects learning styles is
important in education and improvement of teaching in indigenous environments.

3. Swisher, Karen. (1991). American Indian/Alaskan Native learning styles: research and practice. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. ED335175, 1991-05-00. Retrieved April 15,
Karen Swisher provides an overview of learning styles research among Native students and provides
suggestions for educators in implementing the understanding of this research into their teaching style.
Please consult the available annotated bibliography for other sources of information regarding indigenous education and learning research.

Prepared for:
Information Resources in the Social Sciences
LIS 382L3
Dr. Loriene Roy
Graduate School of Library and Information Science
April 2002
Prepared by:
Kristen Lynn Wolf
Master's Candidate
Graduate School of Library and Information Science

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kw 04-26-02