September 24-25, 2010

Abstracts

Session I, Session II, Session III, Session IV, Session V, Poster Session | Bios | Schedule

SESSION I, Friday, September 24, 2010 9:00-10:00am

"The Archaeological Site Museum: Preservation, Presentation, Education"

Kristin Barry
Pennsylvania State University
Department of Art and Architecture History

Questions regarding the display and interpretation of archaeological artifacts have long been debated, even previously, when excavated material was used solely for research purposes. However, with recent developments in DNA technology, people from all over the world are being linked to ancient cultures, and consequently feel a connection to civilizations that were once thought to be lost. This has brought an influx of visitors with varying knowledge and background to many worldwide archaeological sites, exacerbating existing problems with both archaeological tourist facilities and the education of this new demographic of visitors.

Due to the lack of archaeological site museums to house artifacts locally, many artifacts are shipped to national museums, and sometimes, international museums, taking them out of their original cultural, regional, and temporal context. These artifacts are frequently displayed without provenance, and the general viewer is not able to easily associate them with a culture as a whole, while the site suffers with a lack of artifacts to represent the archaeological process.

This paper will discuss a solution to both issues, with the emergence of the new archaeological site museum typology, allowing for artifacts and pieces of cultural heritage to be displayed at sites, and giving visitors the total contextual education of an ancient civilization. Keeping artifacts at the site will reduce the questions in provenance, and displaying artifacts in relation to excavated architectural remains will also help visitors be able to place the artifacts back in the context from which they were excavated, accomplishing the complete cultural heritage experience.

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"The Looting of the Iraq Museum: An Analysis of the 2003 Preparedness Steps from the Conservation Perspective"

Zainab Mohammed
New York University

This paper will present an examination of the methods of protection used by the Iraq Museum staff to secure the collections of the museum before Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003. Although many people believe that the looting of the Iraq Museum was mainly the fault of the American troops, this paper will reveal the role of the preparedness steps taken by museum staff before the 2003 war in the grievous loss of our shared heritage. As the Iraq Museum and its collections were at risk of damage several times during wartime in 1980, 1991, and 2003, the questions that may rise are as follows: why was there no comprehensive emergency plan to protect the museum collections? What needed to be done in the Iraq Museum before the invasion to secure the collections scientifically? Were the steps taken by the museum staff enough to protect it? Or were they the reason for the irreversible damage to some irreplaceable collections since they didn't conduct full and scientific research?

The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the activity behind the scenes of the Iraq Museum management and to learn lessons from past mistakes to protect our heritage and keep it intact for future generations. The comprehensive emergency plan to protect museum collections titled "Preparing a Museum Disaster Plan," by John Hunter (1991), will be used as the preparedness plan model. An intensive examination of the preparedness steps taken by the Iraq Museum staff from a conservation perspective (physical characteristics of the assets, how the assets were protected and whether such protection or security contributed to the risk, identification and prioritization of the museum's assets, and other technical issues) will be conducted.

The paper concludes that the tremendous loss of the Iraq Museum collection was due in a large part to 1) the ignorance of the role of emergency planning in reducing the harm to the museum's collection; and 2) the extemporaneous steps to secure part of the Iraq Museum collection without any research into the physical characteristics of the assets and without any study of the collection's needs and condition.

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SESSION II, Friday, September 24, 2010 10:30-12:00

"Click to Return Home: Preservation of the Networked Domestic"

Amelia Abreu
University of Washington
The Information School

How do information technologies shape domestic life, and how do they shape the documents of it? What are the implications for preservation, and do our existing critical frameworks suffice? This paper, part of a larger critical study on networked technologies and domestic spaces, examines the possible ramifications for preservation of such documents in line with the traditions of libraries, archives and museums.

The growth of broadband capability has significantly advanced the integration of networked technologies into the home, turning domestic spaces into interactive environments. Functional practices such as crafts, cooking and shopping have been transformed by such technology. This shift occurs not just in the political economy of the home, but also as it blurs the the relations of residents to these practices to a networked public sphere. As a result, the knowledges developed in the domestic are now traced and tracked in unprecedented volume and detail, and thrust into a public material consciousness.

Engaging with both the physical (spatial and embodied) and virtual dynamics of the networked domestic, this paper examines identity, performance and interaction in home environments. Looking at sites such as blogs, Twitter, and consumer forums, this paper explores identity, group dynamics, and document genres in the context of preservation. Surveying the literature of library and information science, archival studies, and critical theory, I will explore the relationship between bodies, spaces, and knowledges. How do networked environments conflate and complicate our ideas of domesticity and documentation across race, class, gender, and sexual modalities? What shape does the archive of this world take?

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"Building up Broad Support for Heritage Language Maintenance through the Language Documentation Training Center Workshop at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa"

Erenst Anip
University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Library and Information Science

The Language Documentation Training Center (LDTC) is a program initiated and run by graduate students in the department of Linguistics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, to contribute to the worldwide effort to document endangered languages. Since its inception in 2004, LDTC has been entirely run by graduate students with minimal input from faculty. Students work together to design the curriculum, schedule, recruitment, and other activities. In this informational poster, we will describe the program and its mission.

After 6 years running, LDTC has documented more than 50 languages and dialects from around the Pacific Rim all the way to New Mexico and France. The main goal of LDTC has always been to offer native speakers a public domain for making information about their languages accessible, to train native speakers so that they can document their own language, and encourage them to be active language advocates in their home communities. We will explain the skills participants acquire in the series of workshops that we conduct every semester. In addition, we will also highlight successes of our participants in their efforts to document their language. Each participant is paired up with a graduate student who acts as a mentor, guiding the participant through the workshops. Working together, they design a website that displays information about the participant's language. At the end of the semester, these projects are presented to the community and uploaded to the Languages page of LDTC's website. Furthermore, in a relatively short period of time, the LDTC program itself has also been recognized campus and nation-wide for its contribution in an effort to document indigenous languages of the world. In the end, we hope that this community workshop method can be applied in other locations.

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"Preservation of the décima in Las Tunas, Cuba"

Jamie Swim
University of Texas at Austin
School of Information

The Cuban décima is a form of poetry that has been recognized as the national poem of Cuba. The décima still follows the same form as its 18th century ancestor, the espinela (a traditional Spanish poem): ten lines of eight syllables each with a rhyme scheme of abba:accddc. Popularity of the décima grew rapidly as its use became more and more associated with the rural campesino population of Cuba who have historically improvised this poetry orally. In its improvised form, décimismo is also called repentismo in Cuba. Although Cuba is not the only previous Spanish colony to adopt the décima, this poem's status in Cuba is unique in that it is currently a living tradition and a source of patriotism.

The province of Las Tunas has become the epicenter of the décima in Cuba and is known for producing famous décimistas and perpetuating the tradition in many ways. Although some scholars have attempted to explain why this province has become the décima's home, it is a difficult question to answer as there are likely numerous contributing factors and insufficient information. In an effort to better understand the persistence of this tradition in Las Tunas, I will complete a qualitative study to examine the reasons, methods, and uses associated with the preservation of this tradition in Las Tunas. Specifically, I would like to learn about which institutions in Cuba are contributing to preserving the décima and in what ways.

In June I will to travel to Cuba for approximately two weeks in to meet with and interview representatives of the Casa Iberoamericana de la Décima, scholars of the décima, and décimista poets performing at a décima festival. In collecting these data, I will take notes, collect audio recordings of interviews, and transcribe the information to facilitate analytical treatment. I would like to present this study in the form of a paper at the EPOCH conference in September of 2010.

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SESSION III, Friday, September 24, 2010 1:30-2:30

"Thinking and Doing: A 21st Century Pedagogy for Preserving the Historic Architectural Artifact"

Robert Ogle
University of Colorado at Denver
College of Architecture and Planning

During the American revolutionary period, Enlightenment philosophy became laced with the ideology of American republicanism. The principle of individual freedom resulted in uncoupling the centuries old education and training relationship between master craftsman, journeyman and apprentice. The traditional goal of this hierarchical relationship was to produce quality work by moral men who were useful to themselves, their families, and their community. The craft work ethic consisting of moderation, integrity and industry was the path to a moral life. Craft quality was generational and the material and moral output of the craftsmen class was understood and expected by the community.

For more than two hundred years the breakdown of this structured education and training system has created tension between the skill sets needed for advancing technology juxtaposed against a burgeoning American sensibility for conservation of the intrinsic and associative values of the historic architectural artifact. Public policy makers and scholars exacerbated the gap in training left by the deconstruction of the former system by continuous debate over the merits of liberal arts versus technical education in meeting American societal needs.

Contemporary pedagogical and curricular strategies mirror the panoply of "professional disciplines" that evolved as a result of rationalist theories on the efficiencies gained by division of conceptualization and execution of work. Unfortunately, the successful preservation of the historic architectural artifact requires a skill set that combines the empiricism of the work place with visualization of an entire process.

This paper explores the historical American educational models that were designed to resuscitate the skills requisite of the craft tradition and why they failed. It then reviews the recent revival in interest in historic preservation and how certain colleges and universities are addressing student and market demand. Finally, a conceptual pedagogical and curricular model is offered to demonstrate how educators may connect "thinking and doing" within their preservation and related disciplines.

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"In Between Theory and Practice: Preservation of Built Environment in Contemporary China"

Yishi Liu
University of California at Berkeley
Department of Architecture

This paper looks at the preservation projects of built environment in contemporary China, both urban and rural, and how governmental, economic and academic concerns have contested and collaborated with each other in shaping and reshaping these projects. I will chart out the change of the preservation theory in China since the 1980s and analyze how preservation is used to meet different ends of different parties in contemporary China, arguing the ambiguous nature of preservation in contemporary China has predicted a compromise among different parties of their own interest. With complex and interwoven relations, three parties - officials, professionals (planners/architects and professors), and developers -, play crucial but different roles in these projects. Three cases will be studied, with the hope to provide a general picture of the field of preservation on different levels. Rebuilding famous old temples in Datong City in Shanxi Province under the aegis of the municipality has lasted over years, a critical project to attract tourism as major revenue of the city, resulting in a concession to developers, notwithstanding strong objection of scholars. However, officials and professors collaborated closely to produce the guideline of the other two projects, i.e. relocation and renovation of Beijing Steel and Iron Company (to reduce pollution in Beijing during the Olympics), and the preservation of a shop house street in a less urbanized town, Yacheng in Hainan, excluding developers in the course. In all three cases, in what ways the products of the past can be made attractive and accessible for cultural tourism is the central concern, and different approach to this question resulted in different practices. Also, it is noteworthy that civic participation has been left out in all three cases.

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SESSION IV, Saturday, September 25, 2010 9:00-10:00

"Heritage tourism in Latin America: Simón Bolivar and the integrity of his legacy as represented through the recently inaugurated 'Ruta del Libertador' in Ecuador and Venezuela, and 'Ruta Libertadora' in Colombia"

George McQueen
University of Texas at Austin
School of Architecture; Latin American Studies

In last century, cultural and heritage tourism has grown from the curiosity of adventurous researchers, to the leisure of the wealthy, to a burgeoning international industry of recreation for an increasingly affluent and growing middle class, especially in Latin America. As a growing international industry, heritage tourism relies on the investment in the preservation and interpretation of historical peoples, places, objects and memories. As economic benefits related to heritage tourism emerge in a community, there is an increased pressure on that community to explore and often exploit those resources. Obscured by the possibility of increased prosperity, the integrity of preservation efforts can often be compromised, begging the question of authenticity, and of whose heritage is being preserved?

In 2009, the governments of Venezuela and Ecuador inaugurated a new touristic travel route based on their common heritage: gaining independence from Spain almost 200 years before. This route, called the "Ruta del Libertador" (Route of the Liberator), was established to revive an authentic memory of Simón Bolivar and "the paths walked by our liberators"1 Also in 2009, the government of Colombia inaugurated a "Ruta Libertadora" (The Liberator Route) with the purpose of "promoting the places where the Liberator Simón Bolivar passed" 2 Though all three countries share this common heritage, these touristic routes were established separately and independently, with no physical nor political communication.

Based on primary research in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela and a review of recent literature on heritage preservation and tourism in Latin America and other developing regions, this paper compares the interpretation of this common heritage through monuments and sites along the routes. This paper also discusses the political, economic and social implications of heritage preservation and heritage tourism in international, national and local levels.

1 http://rutalibertador.mintur.gob.ve/
2 http://web.presidencia.gov.co/especial/ruta_2009/

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"'Heritage Alive' in Hong Kong: Historic Preservation and City Marketing in a Chinese SAR"

William Magruder
Tongji University, Shanghai, China and Bauhaus University, Weimar, Germany

This paper will investigate the use of built heritage in city marketing in Hong Kong. It will focus on a particular institution, the Hong Kong Heritage Discovery Centre, an interactive museum and information center located in Kowloon Park, which represents a concerted effort on the part of a number of actors, agencies, and organizations to showcase Hong Kong's built heritage. The Discovery Centre renders visible particular trends in the interpretation and valuation of Hong Kong's built heritage. The paper will devote particular attention to an exhibit called "Heritage Alive," located at the Heritage Discovery Centre, which uses various display tactics to highlight and celebrate specific conservation projects in Hong Kong that have won UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards. This examination of the exhibition and the Discovery Centre more generally will illuminate a number of ways in which the city's built heritage is used in attempts to market the city and thus to increase the city's competitiveness in tourism and other areas. A theoretical framework drawing on the "city marketing" and "place branding" literatures will be used to analyze the exhibition as an attempt to market Hong Kong as a destination for heritage tourism. The example of the Heritage Discovery Centre will also be used to identify trends in conservation in Hong Kong, as well as linkages and tensions between the public, private, and non-profit sectors in the field of heritage conservation. Additionally, the case of Hong Kong will be contextualized within the Asia-Pacific region. Finally, the utility of city marketing concepts with regard to built heritage in Asia and beyond will be considered.

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SESSION V, Saturday, September 25, 2010 10:30-12:00

"Worthy of Consideration? Recent Past Urban Educational Architecture"

Amber Wiley
George Washington University
American Studies

This paper grapples with the present day condition of fortified yet programmatically innovative urban public high schools in African-American communities in Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. that were built between 1960 and 1980. Urban school construction was a powerful act of local political and cultural authority, used as leverage for urban renewal programs to aid struggling communities. This ideology of empowerment was contradicted by the design of the schools themselves, often characterized by critics as "brutalist," revealing a sentiment of fear for both the urban environment and of the student body. As these schools grow older and require more maintenance they are being threatened with closure and demolition. One such example, the high-rise Woodson High School in Washington D.C., nicknamed the "Tower of Power," was demolished after serving its community for only 36 years.

It is important to understand two main trends in architectural and cultural heritage preservation that affect the fate of the schools. The first is the slow acceptance of modern architecture into the preservation movement, a reflection of the age-value and aesthetic biases of the movement. The second is the limited interaction between the African-American community and the historic preservation community. These schools, as modernist architectural expressions in black communities, face a double threat of demolition as a result of their design and their association with African-American cultural heritage. As such, many of the school and city administrators directly in charge of the future of the buildings see themselves working within a vacuum without the proper context of a major movement in which to identify, and peers with which to discuss issues pertinent to their buildings. This paper investigates the challenges that school districts face in the plight of the future of the schools, and the work ahead for the movement to preserve modern architecture.

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"City-Citizen Collaboration and the Use of Documentation Strategy"

Carol Brock
University of Texas at Austin
School of Information

The City of Austin (Texas) lacks a current, citywide inventory of historic and culturally significant properties. Without accurate records, city-planning efforts, including rehabilitation, redevelopment, and historic property preservation could be impacted. Local efforts to address this have resulted in neighborhood-led surveys, with volunteers seeking to organize local historic districts. These efforts are slowed (if not abandoned) due to difficulties with collecting, managing, and sharing the information required for historic designation.

To resolve this issue, the University of Texas at Austin's Schools of Architecture and Information, in collaboration with Austin's Historic Preservation Office and the Office of Planning are developing a web-based resource that will facilitate the identification and collection of information from multiple contributor communities, provide convenient access to public information, and allow regular updates to survey information while preserving a historical record of Austin's built environment.

A review of similar projects revealed that these information coordination issues are not unique to Austin. These projects relied on strong collaborative efforts among government agencies, non-government organizations, and community volunteers. However, we were unable to find documentation describing how these projects identified stakeholders and their roles beyond the principal sponsors. We believe that complex municipal projects such as the Austin Historic Resource could benefit from a more thorough understanding of these issues.

We draw from previous work in architectural preservation, archival and records management practice, and information policy to develop a plan for the complete and accurate documentation of Austin's historic, culturally significant properties. This plan is based on documentation strategy to identify stakeholders, records, and policy requirements. This will enable the AHA Project Team to better articulate specific stakeholder responsibilities and guide the development of the AHA Resource with the improved likelihood of continued use, proper management, and archival preservation of records.

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"You Can't Archive Feelings: Exploring Tensions between the Queer and Cultural Heritage"

Danielle Cooper
University of Toronto
Information Science

Emerging academic disciplines such as Queer Studies, Sexual Diversity Studies and Gender Studies are leading to greater demand for information collections - such as archives - dedicated to their subject matter. In contrast, these disciplines' main theoretical branch, Queer Theory, operates by openly questioning such conventionally held notions of history and legacy on which information collection building usually relies. Some queer communities actively reject institutional affiliation and professional know-how when creating and managing their information collections. Concurrently, recent queer theoretical works such as Ann Cvetkovich's An Archive of Feelings advocate for a queer archiving model divorced from materials collection altogether.

In this paper I will examine how queer theoretical emphasis on performativity, loss and ephemera challenge conventional information collectorship models. I will also survey several prominent queer information collections such as the Lesbian Herstory Archives and the June L. Mazer Lesbian Archives to illustrate currently existing solutions to this issue. Ultimately I will argue that the Queer Studies case is not only relevant to individuals involved in preserving information from this discipline but also to all future professionals engaged in the meta-discipline of cultural preservation. The Queer Studies case reflects a fundamental methodological conflict between the meta-value of preservation and the particular values of the community the preservation work is meant to represent.

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POSTER SESSION, Saturday, September 25, 2010 1:30-2:30

"Between Cultural Heritage Conservation and City Development: an Interpretation of Liverpool's Paradise Project"

Ehab Kamel
University of Nottingham
Department of Architecture and Built Environment

In 2004, Liverpool- Maritime Mercantile City was inscribed on the World Heritage List as a supreme example of a commercial port at the height of Britain's global influence, and as an innovator and pioneer in dock technologies, port management, and transport systems. The City of Liverpool has actively developed a Management Plan adopting a vision that aims to forge Liverpool's identity as a city of an international significance, foster the pride and awareness and understanding of its cultural distinctiveness, and promote its heritage as a driver for sustainable development. Many projects has been developing recently in Liverpool, claiming to be driven by such a vision; like Kings' Waterfront Arena & Convention Centre, Commercial Quarter, Creative Ropewalks, Knowledge Quarter, and the Paradise Project, of which the Master plan has been shortlisted for the RIBA Stirling Prize 2009.

This poster aims to interpret Liverpool's Paradise Project, in particular, as an example of an urban development project within a cultural World Heritage Site. Also, the poster investigates and explores the guiding management principles adopted, between the stages of planning and implementation. For this sake, a qualitative study was carried through a thorough text-analysis of Liverpool's Management Plan, as well as its Supplementary Planning Documents for analysing and interpreting its management guiding principles, and contrasting them against the heritage conservation theories, charters, and conventions on the one hand, and the city development needs on the other. Additionally, an observation study and questionnaires were carried out in Liverpool City with the intention of understanding whether the goals of the Management Plan were achieved or not, including the delivery of Liverpool's cultural message through such an urban development project.

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"Conservation Scenario of Built Heritage in Pakistan "

Saima Gulzar
University of the Punjab
College of Earth and Environmental Sciences

Pakistan possess rich cultural heritage represented by a wide variety of standing monuments and archaeological sites nearly in all parts of the country. Built Heritage is the valuable resource and the reservoirs of cultural heritage through which a society can relate its present to the past and can establish future. The valuable heritage of Pakistan is deteriorating at an alarmingly fast pace. Primary cause of this is the lack of technology and related resources regarding conservation work, timely and precise diagnostics and the overall ignorant attitude. The eastern pavilion at Shahdara Complex-Lahore is a glaring example of this process and the reflection of our attitude towards built heritage. Many hidden factors accentuate decay in buildings like Rapid urbanization, Lack of Awareness, Resources, Facilities and Education.

The heritage conservation unfortunately has not been given due consideration by the government as well as the people of Pakistan. No wonder there could not be developed a standard format for the conservation of historic sites and their protection from deteriorating environmental impacts in Pakistan. It is indeed regrettable that heritage conservation had no priority on the Pakistan national agenda. Therefore any efforts made in this context were limited and isolated from general development programs. As custodians of the cultural heritage, our common purpose is to study the changes and deterioration factors affecting the fabric of historic structures and try to retard or even prevent these changes by the use of modern science and technology applicable to the field of conservation. As we all know that the present day conservation of cultural heritage is the knowledge driven and backed by technical, scientific and artistic disciplines.

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"Conserving Holy Child Devotional Sculptures : Fine Art and Sacred Objects"

Kimberleigh Collins-Peynaud
Ecole supérieure de beaux-arts de Tours
Conservation-Restoration

The Holy Child is exemplary of baroque devotional sculpture that falls under the categories of fine art and ethnographic objects. The conservation of two baroque mediterranean examples has shed light on the once very popular devotion to the Holy Child, the widespread production and use of these tangible images of the Christ child as well as the need for further investigation of their different fabrication techniques, practices and origins. Widespread in Europe during the 1600's and 1700's, these sculptures were largely commissioned, with specific guidelines for technique and style, by the Catholic Church after the Council of Trent. The use of human hair wigs, glass eyes, and real eyelashes were imposed techniques meant to achieve a hyperrealism aimed at appealing to the senses of the faithful.

Private and public objects of devotion, the Holy Child was destined to directly connect the devout to God through contemplation and meditation, relying heavilly upon one's senses and imagination. Numerous dedicated songs, poems, clothing, jewelry and gifts, as well as several rites practiced for the sculpture, are proof of the intimate relationships that existed between man and the sacred object. Some Holy child sculptures had magical and healing powers, others had divine intervention. Some were used as tools for conversion, education and social status. Many were largely produced and given as gifts to young nuns upon entering the convent becoming a symbol of the mystic marriage between her and Christ.

International collaboration between art historians, curators and conservators has been key in the process of identifying the sculptures' origins, fabrication techniques, use and history. A growing interest in preserving them, many still in use, has underlined the need for an extensive study of the thousands of Holy Child sculptures used around the world in churches or stored and forgotten in museum collections.

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"Cultural Heritage Preservation and Built Environment in the Kumaon Region of the Indian Himalayas"

Jordan Monez
University of Washington
College of the Built Environment

In the summer of 2009, I was part of a group of students from the University of Washington College of Built Enivronments led by Professor Manish Chalana, who conducted field research on rural development in the Kumaon region of the Indian Himalayas. Our research emphasis was the preservation of cultural heritage and the built environment in a way that acknowledged the changing livelihoods of the people in that region. The villages that we visited, Munsiyari and Sarmoli, are positioned at the foot of the Johar Valley, once an important route for traders between Tibet and north India. The closing of the border between China and India brought an abrupt halt to the lifestyles of the traders who practiced transhumance, living in higher altitudes during summer and while trading, and in lower altitudes during the colder months when the mountain passes were impenetrable.

The beauty and grandeur of the natural environment in this region has brought tourists and adventure-seekers to the area, and with the need to change the economic system once propelled by cross-national trade, the tourism industry has become an important economic force in the area. Our research was concerned with the transformation of the built environment in the face of modernization and the issues related to the influx of large numbers of people visiting and moving to this sensitive natural environment, adjacent to important protected lands such as the Nanda Devi National Park. In conducting this research we collaborated with a home-stay program connected to forest preservation, and documented the changing built environment of the villages. I am interested in presenting our final paper at the EPOCH symposium and engaging the participants in a dialogue about cultural and built environment preservation.

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"Defining Sacred Places: Religious Perspectives on Dzil nchaa si an (Mt. Graham), Arizona"

Sheila Rabun
University of Oregon
Folklore

Given the diversity of the religious marketplace in today's society, conflicting ideas of what is "sacred" are bound to have an affect on society, especially in terms of sacred places. Definitions of what constitutes a "sacred" place vary between religions and cultures, and in areas where conflicting ideologies come face to face, cultural heritage is often at risk. Mount Graham, Arizona, traditionally known as Dzil nchaa si an to the Apache people, is one such area. The mountain has been traditionally considered a sacred place by local Apaches, but even so, the Vatican, in support of the University of Arizona, has installed a large telescope on the mountain, soon to be joined by others. The Vatican claims that there are no signs of "sacredness" on the mountain, such as churches or shrines, objects that are unnecessary in Apache tradition. Apache people have now had to face the usurpation of their sacred mountain, required to obtain permits and permission to pray there. In the face of such large institutions, will Apache people be able to preserve their cultural heritage? Looking specifically at the Vatican's use of the mountain in direct conflict with Apache spiritual and cultural beliefs and practices, this paper explores the importance of sacred place to religion and the preservation of cultural heritage.

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"Green Museum Practices"

Rose Daly
Winterthur/University of Delaware
Program in Art Conservation

Museums can function in a more energy efficient or green way by using more sustainable practices for: the building of new structures, the re-use of historic structures, and in daily museum activities.  

Sustainable practices for the construction of a new building would be designing with a smaller footprint.  By having the museum’s website function as a visitor’s center and creating multi-purpose spaces will keep the footprint small which will be more efficient for facilities and maintenance. Careful selection of building materials with a high thermal mass will better control temperature and humidity. 

The re-purposing of a historic building is where historic preservation can significantly contribute to the dialogue about green museum practices.  Reusing existing buildings is greener than new construction, and can teach us about how people lived when energy was more limited. Existing buildings may require less energy to maintain a environment that is comfortable for staff and visitors. Passive environmental systems, humidistatic controls, allowing buildings to freeze in the winter, and providing sufficient insulation with natural materials will allow structures to use less energy.

Museum staff can live and work in ways that use less energy, thus preserving museum collections and the environment. Meetings and conferences can be held over the phone, through online video conferencing, or through online chatting, so employee travel will be minimal. Recycling can be instated in the workplace and the museum can purchase re-usable materials. 

These ideas make logical sense from a budgetary perspective.  The conservation of natural resources allows collections and museums to be available to future generations.

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"International Librarianship and the Sharing of Global Resources: Digital Access to Historic German-Language Newspapers"

Amy Elizabeth Neeser
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
School of Information Studies

Through a recent internship, I became involved in a cultural heritage project through GNARP (German North American Resources Partnership), one of the working projects of the Global Resources Network. I am helping to collect the German-language newspaper holdings from academic libraries and cultural institutions to then compile them into a centralized wiki. Because the majority of these newspapers are old, sporadic, and often located in the forgotten library stacks, they are not listed in major public catalogs, and are thus unknown or at best difficult to locate. This wiki is an example of how the field of cultural heritage preservation needs to blur the lines between professions and fields of study and focus on technologies such as virtual data, metadata, and multiple formats that will ultimately ease resource sharing and facilitate global collaboration.

It is through the combination of interdisciplinary approaches, cultural heritage preservation, and new technologies that enables cooperation on a cross-cultural level and allows institutions to collaborate in order to offer the broadest and most complete access to information without being restricted by language, format, or geography. Cooperative partnerships between the differing types of cultural heritage institutions must be fostered by investing in technologies that transcend these traditional boundaries and promote interoperability and the sharing of resources to further the "acquisition, organization, preservation, and access of information resources that documents society's cultural life and legacy" (Choquette, 2009, p. 6).

One of the key features of GNARP's index of historical German-language newspaper holdings is that its wiki format allows for non-proprietary professional collaboration on the project. Holdings are arranged by city of publication and include the newspaper name, dates available, publication information, and an icon specifying if each item is in paper, microform, or open-access digital format; in addition, the majority of listings include a direct link to the individual holding in each institution's catalog. The next step in this important project is digitizing these items so they can be used by more people without their physical condition being jeopardized. Making this data available in a centralized and accessible location is the first step in a large project of ultimately making these resources globally accessible. The long-term goal of GNARP's German-language newspaper wiki, like that of the cultural heritage movement, is to "work across boundaries of libraries, archives, and museums to meet the information needs of users of all types of cultural heritage organizations" (Choquette, 2009, p. 3).

Choquette, M. E. (2009). Building the body of cultural heritage literacy within LIS curricula: challenges and opportunities in an evolving global knowledge economy. Paper presented at the 2009 World Library and Information Congress. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.ifla.org/files/hq/papers/ifla75/192-edsall-en.pdf

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"Lost from Oxiana: The Looting and Destruction of the National Museum of Afghanistan (1979-2001)"

Joanie Meharry
University of Edinburgh
Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies

This presentation will address the conditions that led to the looting and destruction of the National Museum of Afghanistan from 1979-2001, and efforts to preserve the museum then and today. In March 2001 the two Buddhas of Bamiyan were demolished by the Taliban. The picture of the empty caves came to represent the plight of cultural heritage in Afghanistan. Yet the iconoclastic destruction of the pre-Islamic statues - targets of immense symbolic importance - was neither the first nor the last case in which factional strife led to damage of the country's significant cultural sites.

From the start of the Soviet occupation (1979-89) archaeological sites around the country were nearly impossible to secure and were ransacked by impoverished villagers armed with shovels and wheelbarrows. The work at the National Museum was reduced to cataloguing and storing excavation finds from the previous decades. During the Mujahideen civil war (1992-96) the museum - standing on the battle front - was repeatedly looted and rocketed. For the remainder of the decade, the structure stood exposed to the natural elements and manmade threats, and bereft of its extraordinary collections. Artifacts were sold in the local bazaars or smuggled across the Pakistani border and purchased by collectors on the international art market. In March 2001, the Taliban spent several days destroying the museum's pre-Islamic statues: a tragedy that marked the culmination in the destructive trend in the country's recent cultural history.

In a span of two decades (1979-2001) "one of the most opulent small museums in the world" was reduced to little more than rubble. This presentation will explain what happened, how it unfolded, and the community involvement in the preservation of the National Museum's priceless collections. Many of the conditions that led to the looting and destruction of the National Museum of Afghanistan are still applicable today. Thus, consideration will finally be given to what is being done today to preserve the collections at the Kabul Museum.

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"Manufacturing Technology and Conservation of a Graecoroman Bronze Coin from Sa El-Haggar (Sais Site), Egypt"

Danielle Cooper

Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 bc; the period ended with the death of Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 bc [1]. Sais-Sa el-Hagar lies on the eastern side of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, Egypt. There is a village on the site called Sa el-Hagar, a name which combines the ancient name 'Sa' ('Sa' means the stone) and this is a good indication that there was once a large city here with many stone buildings [2].

Coins usually provide considerable information about the history of a city, or an emperor (as in the Roman empire) and also information on social traditions at varying times and differing places according to the age of the coins involved. The manufacturing processes for coins have changed over time. Casting is one of the more crude manufacturing processes, in which the melted metals were cast in moulds bearing the shape or impression of the required images. A more sophisticated die method - the usual process of producing a coin - was to impress the image from a die, or pair of dies, on a piece of metal by means of a hammer blow [3]. The tools required were: an anvil into the top of which was fitted a thick metal disk carrying an intaglio design; a punch with another intaglio design carved on the face; blank discs of metal of the correct weight which were heated in a fire until malleable. Coins made by this method often have two holes in both surfaces which were used to attach the coin in the die during hammering, so as to obtain accurate inscriptions without distortion.

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"Recovering the Lost History of Art: Nazi-Era Provenance Research and the Preservation of Cultural Memory"

Jennifer McComas
Indiana University - Bloomington
Department of Art History

During wartime, cultural artifacts and art objects face dire threats, and no war in modern history placed more artifacts at risk than World War II. Although the United States devoted significant resources to the preservation and protection of cultural and architectural monuments, many paintings and sculptures went astray between 1933 and 1945. Thanks to the Nazis' systematic campaign to loot Jewish collections, thousands of art objects were destroyed, hidden, or sold. In 1998, art museums in the United States and Europe embarked on a project to research, document, and publicize the provenances - ownership histories - of European paintings and sculptures in their collections. It is hoped that through documenting these histories, looted art can be reunited with former owners or their heirs. I initiated the Indiana University Art Museum's Nazi-era provenance research project in 2004, and have observed a massive shift in museum practices and priorities, including a greater emphasis on transparency and a new willingness to share formerly confidential information. Furthermore, the new focus on provenance is transforming the goals and methods of art historical research. Where once provenance served primarily to authenticate works of art, today it reveals a long ignored and nearly forgotten history of art. Exhibitions and new publications devoted to art within a context of collecting and patronage have proliferated in recent years, the result of new research which has uncovered the historical life of art objects. Recovering these histories preserves cultural memory by providing new lenses through which to understand and interpret the historical functions of art in western culture. In attempts to reconstruct the culture of Jewish communities destroyed during the war, these insights are particularly valuable. This paper outlines the methodologies of provenance research, argues that it preserves cultural memory through careful documentation, and examines its impact on the field of art history.

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"The Politics of Intangible Heritage in Zimbabwe"

Jesmael Mataga
National University of Lesotho
Center for African Studies

While the international efforts for the preservation of intangible heritage have geared up with the passing of the 2003 UNESCO convention, in local spaces this discourse and movement is having various impacts and implications. This paper looks at the nature of, the debates and issues arising out of the discourse of intangible heritage preservation in Southern Africa with particular reference to Zimbabwe. The management, ownership and custodianship of intangible heritage in Zimbabwe like many other forms of heritage, has been a contested terrain. The authenticity of both the heritage and its custodians remain as open to debate among scholars as it is among host communities. The effort at identification, documentation, preservation and presentation of intangible heritage has also been tainted by the overtones of both local and national politics. This paper examines the role played by state institutions and traditional leaders (chiefs and spirit mediums) in the politicisation of intangible heritage. It will also be argued that the politicisation /politics of intangible heritage has been accelerated by the land/agrarian reform in Zimbabwe since the year 2000. The paper will largely focus on intangible heritage associated with heritage places (monuments, sites, landscapes).

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