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Equity of Access Pathfinders
Arrow Equity of Access and Race by Rebecca Gonzalez
  The Internet is becoming an increasingly important tool in our information society. While there are more Americans online now than ever before, certain groups are still less likely to have online access or own computers. There exist gaps in technological access among people of different educational, income, racial, and geographic backgrounds. This section focuses on equity of access and race.
Evidence indicates that minorities and the poor are less likely to own computers and have Internet access than are whites and more affluent people (Attawell, 252). Government and corporate groups have mobilized to address the issue of inequity of access by providing computer equipment to schools and libraries. However, wiring schools and libraries is not enough. People need information literacy, the ability to interpret the reliability and accuracy of information, and technological literacy, the ability to use hardware and software (Carven, 42). These literacy skills are necessary in order to utilize information technology effectively. The need for relevant content must also be addressed. Individuals and communities require relevant information and the ability to create their own information online (Carven, 39). Investments should be made in online content that meets the needs of minority groups who may feel that the Internet is not for them (Young, 51).
Equity of access can be improved by addressing literacy issues, content problems, along with current efforts to increase Internet access (Carven, 39). Libraries serve a vital role as Internet access points for people who are otherwise unconnected and as a place to gain the skills needed to use information technology effectively. Libraries not only provide access and training, but also content for underrepresented groups. It is common for libraries to develop and provide unique resources for their individual community needs. Libraries can help to alleviate gaps in technological access among different races and ethnicities.

General Site
http://www.pbs.org/digitaldivide/index.html
This is the online accompaniment to the two-part PBS series on the digital divide. This website contains information on many aspects of the digital divide including education, gender, race, and employment. Click on the link titled "Race" to read interviews and bios of influential writers in the field, look at statistics, and explore the excellent collection of links.

Surveys, Statistics, and Reports
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/dn/index.html
U. S. Department of Commerce's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the Economics and Statistics Administration have the report A Nation Online: How Americans Are Expanding Their Use of the Internet. This report describes computer and Internet use among different groups of Americans. To access other similar NTIA statistical reports click on the link "Previous Statistical Reports on Computer and Internet Use in the U.S." located at the bottom of the page. Other reports include Falling Through the Net: Toward Digital Inclusion, a series of reports that measure the extent of digital inclusion by looking at households and individuals that have a computer and an Internet connection.

http://www.ed.gov/Technology/digdiv.html
U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Technology (OET) site contains information related to education and the digital divide. Under "Headlines" look for the informative resource called Tool Kit for Bridging the Digital Divide in Your Community. The site includes links to relevant publications and many web resources.

African-American
http://elab.vanderbilt.edu/research/topics/digital_divide/index.htm
Donna Hoffman and Thomas Novak have written extensively on the topic of race and the digital divide, specifically relating to African-Americans. This site contains papers written by the authors including the report "Bridging the Digital Divide: The Impact of Race on Computer Access and Internet Use".

Latino
http://www.trpi.org/information_tech.html
Tomas Rivera Policy Institute conducts and disseminates research on issues affecting Latino communities. One of the research areas is Information and communication technology (ICT). The Institute conducts research and publishes reports about issues concerning the nation's Latino communities, including studies about computer ownership and Internet access.

http://www.sanantonio.gov/library/web/enlaces.asp
The San Antonio Public Library maintains Enlaces en Espanol, a comprehensive website in Spanish with links and resources relevant to the Latino community. Topics on the website include news, culture, and religion. This is an excellent example of the effort made in libraries to create ethnic relevant content for the community of users.

Native American
http://www.benton.org/Library/Native/
Native Networking: Telecommunications and Information Technology in Indian Country site contains reports, funding assistance information, current projects, and many other community resources. A glossary of key terms and sources for additional information are also included.

http://www.indiantech.org/
From the National Congress of American Indians, IndianTech is an information agency for Indian Nations attempting to bridge the digital divide in their communities. The digital divide in Indian Country addressed five issues in order to achieve technological equality. These areas are access, economic development and workforce training education, content, and sovereignty

Current News and Information
http://www.civilrights.org/issues/communication/
One of the many civil rights issues on the civilrights.org site is "Communications and Internet Policy". This is a great resource for recent information in the area of equity of access and race. The "Digital Divide" section located under "Communications and Internet Policy" includes comprehensive resources on the issue such as such as overview, history, updates, resources, stories, and toolkit along with clippings, press releases, and alerts.

http://www.nua.com/surveys/index.cgi?f=FS&cat_id=49
NUA is an online source for information on Internet demographics and trends. The site contains the latest information in many categories including "Minority" issues. Users can subscribe to a free weekly newsletter that contains all the week's news on Internet trends and statistics, and editorial.

Conferences
http://cms.mit.edu/race/
Race in Digital Space is a conference presented by University of Southern California and
Massachusetts Institute of Technology that tackles issues related to race and the digital divide. The dynamic conference includes panel discussions with scholars, artists, writers, and musicians.

Sources
Attawell, P. (2001). First and Second Digital Divides. Sociology of Education, 74 (3), 252-259.
Carven, A. (2000). More Than Just Access. EDUCause Review, 35 (6), 29-47.
Young, J. (2001). Does 'Digital Divide' Rhetoric Do More Harm Than Good? The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48 (11), A51-A52.
Saundra, S. (2000). OITP Policy Brief Libraries and the Digital Divide. Retrieved March 12, 2002, from ALA Office for Information Technology Policy Website: http://www.ala.org/oitp/digitaldivide/brief_dd_libraries.html

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